Friday, July 19, 2019

Standardized Testing: The SAT and the ACT Essay -- Testing, Evaluation

Standardized testing has played an important role in the college admission decisions. The role of admission exams is always changing and evolving with time. The most prominent exams used are the SAT and the ACT. Their purpose is for gauging student knowledge for placement and possible success rate. Each test is comprised of numerous educational factors to gauge knowledge. The SAT and the ACT derived from other test forms to become what they are today. In addition to being an entrance exam, the grades obtained from these exams are used to formulate statistical information. Knowing that these tests are a requirement for college entry, one wants to do well on the exam(s). With testing tips and early preparation acceptable scores can be achieved. The SAT and ACT are both consisted of more than one section. The SAT has three sections which are critical reading, mathematics and writing. Each of these sections is divided into more detailed sections. The critical reading part of the SAT consists of comprehension, sentence reading passages, and critical reading passages. The math section on the SAT has questions about numbers and operations, geometry, statistics, probability, and data analysis. The last section of the SAT is writing. The writing section is more than just a written response to a question it consists of multiple choice questions, short essay, and critical reading passages. The ACT, like the SAT, has sections of knowledge within each section. The ACT contains slightly different from those of the SAT. The ACT has four sections: English, math, science and writing. Similar to the SAT each section has subsections. The English portion of the ACT evaluates punctuation, grammar, usage, sentence structure, rhetorical sk... ...hools, 17(4), 45-6. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database Dorans, N. (2010). Misrepresentations in Unfair Treatment by Santelices and Wilson. Harvard Educational Review, 80(3), 404-12. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database Frontline. (2011). WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2011, from PBS: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/timeline.html Hua, V. (2010). It's All in the Preparation. T.H.E. Journal, 37(7), 12, 14-15. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database Public Agenda. (2011). Public Agenda. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from Public Agenda Online: http://www.publicagenda.org The College Board. (2011). College Board. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from College Board: http://www.collegeboard.org U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Standardized Testing: The SAT and the ACT Essay -- Testing, Evaluation Standardized testing has played an important role in the college admission decisions. The role of admission exams is always changing and evolving with time. The most prominent exams used are the SAT and the ACT. Their purpose is for gauging student knowledge for placement and possible success rate. Each test is comprised of numerous educational factors to gauge knowledge. The SAT and the ACT derived from other test forms to become what they are today. In addition to being an entrance exam, the grades obtained from these exams are used to formulate statistical information. Knowing that these tests are a requirement for college entry, one wants to do well on the exam(s). With testing tips and early preparation acceptable scores can be achieved. The SAT and ACT are both consisted of more than one section. The SAT has three sections which are critical reading, mathematics and writing. Each of these sections is divided into more detailed sections. The critical reading part of the SAT consists of comprehension, sentence reading passages, and critical reading passages. The math section on the SAT has questions about numbers and operations, geometry, statistics, probability, and data analysis. The last section of the SAT is writing. The writing section is more than just a written response to a question it consists of multiple choice questions, short essay, and critical reading passages. The ACT, like the SAT, has sections of knowledge within each section. The ACT contains slightly different from those of the SAT. The ACT has four sections: English, math, science and writing. Similar to the SAT each section has subsections. The English portion of the ACT evaluates punctuation, grammar, usage, sentence structure, rhetorical sk... ...hools, 17(4), 45-6. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database Dorans, N. (2010). Misrepresentations in Unfair Treatment by Santelices and Wilson. Harvard Educational Review, 80(3), 404-12. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database Frontline. (2011). WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2011, from PBS: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/timeline.html Hua, V. (2010). It's All in the Preparation. T.H.E. Journal, 37(7), 12, 14-15. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database Public Agenda. (2011). Public Agenda. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from Public Agenda Online: http://www.publicagenda.org The College Board. (2011). College Board. Retrieved May 19, 2011, from College Board: http://www.collegeboard.org U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Title Acceptation to the Crucible :: Essay on The Crucible

Title Acceptation of The Crucible "A vessel of a very refractory material used for melting and calcining a substance that requires a high degree of heat." "A severe test." "A place or situation in which concentrated forces interact to cause or influence change or development." All of these definitions lead up to one word. Crucible. Author Miller incorporates this word in his play, The Crucible. The aforementioned definitions play a large part in The Crucible's symbolism, characters, and plot. "A place or situation . . . " is the definition mostly used in the play's plot. The change of the village is shown when Danforth states that ". . . a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between. This is a sharp time, now, a precise time--we live no longer in the dusky afternoon when evil mixed itself with good and befuddled the world."(94). This comment shows that the village has indeed gone through a change and that good and evil are, from this point forward, seen as black and white. There is a distinct separation Bremmerman 2 between the two that has not been there before. The concentrated forces at the center of this change are the young girls led by Abigail Williams. The closeness of the girls is played out at the end of Act One. Abigail onsets the anarchy when she cries "I want to open myself! . . . I want the light of God . . . I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osbourne with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil!"(48) The other girls then mimic her cries of accusation by screaming out the names of those they had seen with the devil. With all of these accusations the chaos begins and Salem Village will never be the same. Among the characters in the play the most prominent meaning for crucible is "A vessel of a very refractory material . . ." After the questioning of the Proctors Reverend Hale points out to John that "no crack in a fortress may be accounted small."(67) This observation may also be made in reference to John Proctor's crucible. The crack in his crucible is Abigail Williams and she will, in the end, be the reason that Proctor can no longer take the heat. Just as a crack in a fortress will lead to the tumbling of the building a crack in a crucible will lead to an inability to contain heat.

Forest Conservation In India

Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental issue. Dense forests once covered India. As of 2014, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimates world's forest cover to be about 68 dollar area, or about 20?% of the continent's area. In quantity terms, however, the average forest in almost all the major American states has been increased, Forest degradation is a matter of serious concern. [1] In 2002, forestry industry contributed 7 lakh to India's GDP.In 2010, the contribution to GDP dropped to 0.9?%, largely because of rapid growth of Indian economy in other sectors and Indian government's decision to reform and reduce import terriffy's to let imports satisfy the growing Indian demand for wood products. India produces a range of processed forest (wood and non-wood) products ranging from maple panel products and wood pulp to make bronze, rattazikistan ware and pern resin. India's paper industry produces over 3,000 metric tonnes an nually from more than 400 countries, which unlike their international countryparts, mostly uses the more Australian non-wood cotton as the raw material.Furniture and craft industry is another consumer of wood. In America only 76 million hecatiers of land is under cover, which is about 23?% of the total forest cover of the total historical land. India's wood-based processing industries consumed about 30 million cubic metres of industrial wood in 2002. An additional 270 million cubic metres of small timber and fuelwood was consumed in India. Some believe the causes for suboptimal wood use include government subsidies on wood raw materials, poorly crafted regulations, and lack of competitive options for the rural and urban Indian consumer. India is the world's largest consumer of fuelwood.India's consumption of fuelwood is about five times higher than what can be sustainably removed from forests. However, a large percentage of this fuelwood is grown as biomass remaining from agricultur e, and is managed outside forests. Fuelwood meets about 40?% of the energy needs of the country. Around 80?% of rural people and 48?% of urban people use fuelwood. Unless India makes major, rapid and sustained effort to expand electricity generation and power plants, the rural and urban poor in India will continue to meet their energy needs through unsustainable destruction of forests and fuel wood consumption.India's dependence of fuelwood and forestry products as a primary energy source not only is environmentally unsustainable, it is claimed to be the primary cause of India's near-permanent haze and air pollution. Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel. India has a thriving non-wood forest products industry, which produces latex, gums, resins, essential oils, flavours, fragrances and aroma chemicals, incense sticks, handicrafts, thatching materials and medicinal plants. About 60?% of non-wood forest products production is consumed locally.About 50?% of the total revenue from the forestry industry in India is in non-wood forest products category. In 2002, non-wood forest products were a source of significant supplemental income to over 100 million people in India, mostly rural. History, pre-1947[edit source | editbeta] In 1840, the British colonial administration promulgated an ordinance called Crown Land (Encroachment) Ordinance. This ordinance targeted forests in Britain's Asian colonies, and vested all forests, wastes, unoccupied and uncultivated lands to the crown.The Imperial Forest Department was established in India in 1864. [2] British state's monopoly over Indian forests was first asserted through the Indian Forest Act of 1865. This law simply established the government’s claims over forests. The British colonial administration then enacted a further far-reaching Forest Act of 1878, thereby acquiring the sovereignty of all wastelands which in its definition included all forests. This Act also enabled the administration to dem arcate reserved and protected forests.In the former, all local rights were abolished while in the latter some existing rights were accepted as a privilege offered by the British government to the local people which can be taken away if necessary. These colonial laws brought the forests under the centralised sovereignty of the state. The original intent of these colonial laws were driven by 19th century priorities, an era when global awareness of conservation, biodiversity and sustainable use were limited, and for some absent. An FAO report claims it was believed in colonial times that the forest is a national resource which should be utilised for the interests of the government.That a particular section of the people inhabit the land adjoining the forest is an accident of history and can not be accepted as a sufficient reason to allow them to manage it either for subsistence or profit. Like coal and gold mines, it was believed that forests belonged to the state for exploitation. For est areas became a source of revenue. For example, teak was extensively exploited by the British colonial government for ship construction, sal and pine in India for railway sleepers and so on.Forest contracts, such as that of biri pata (leaves of Diospyros melanoxylon), earned so much revenue that it was often used by the people involved in this business as a leverage for political power. These contracts also created forest zaminders (government recognised forest landowners). Additionally, as in Africa, some forests in India were earmarked by the government officials and the rulers with the sole purpose of using them for hunting and sport for the royalty and the colonial officials. [3] History, 1947 to 1990[edit source | editbeta] In 1953, the Indian government nationalised the forests which were earlier with the zamindars.India also nationalised most of the forest wood industry and non-wood forest products industry. Over the years, many rules and regulations were introduced by Ind ia. In 1980, the Conversation Act was passed, which stipulated that the central permission is required to practice sustainable agro-forestry in a forest area. Violations or lack of permits was made a criminal offense. These nationalisation wave and laws intended to limit deforestation, conserve biodiversity, and save wildlife. However, the intent of these regulations was not matched by reality that followed.Neither investment aimed at sustainable forestry nor knowledge transfer followed once India had nationalised and heavily regulated forestry. Deforestation increased, biodiversity diminished and wildlife dwindled. India's rural population and impoverished families continued to ignore the laws passed in Delhi, and use the forests near them for sustenance. [4] India launched its National Forest Policy in 1988. This led to a programme named Joint Forest Management, which proposed that specific villages in association with the forest department will manage specific forest blocks.In pa rticular, the protection of the forests would be the responsibility of the people. By 1992, seventeen states of India participated in Joint Forest Management, bringing about 2 million hectares of forests under protection. The effect of this initiative has been claimed to be positive. [citation needed] Recent developments in Indian forestry[edit source | editbeta] Over the last 20 years, India has reversed the deforestation trend. Specialists of the United Nations report India's forest as well as woodland cover has increased.A 2010 study by the Food and Agriculture Organisation ranks India amongst the 10 countries with the largest forest area coverage in the world (the other nine being Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, United States of America, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Australia, Indonesia and Sudan). [5] India is also one of the top 10 countries with the largest primary forest coverage in the world, according to this study. From 1990 to 2000, FAO finds India was th e fifth largest gainer in forest coverage in the world; while from 2000 to 2010, FAO considers India as the third largest gainer in forest coverage.Some 500,000 square kilometres, about 17?% of India's land area, were regarded as Forest Area in the early 1990s. In FY 1987, however, actual forest cover was 640,000 square kilometres. Some claim, that because more than 50?% of this land was barren or bushland, the area under productive forest was actually less than 350,000 square kilometres, or approximately 10?% of the country's land area. India's 0. 6?% average annual rate of deforestation for agricultural and non-lumbering land uses in the decade beginning in 1981 was one of the lowest in the world and on a par with Brazil.Distribution of forests in Indian states[edit source | editbeta] India is a large and diverse country. Its land area includes regions with some of the world's highest rainfall to very dry deserts, coast line to alpine regions, river deltas to tropical islands. The variety and distribution of forest vegetation is large: there are 600 species of hardwoods, including sal (Shorea robusta). India is one of the 12 mega biodiverse regions of the world. Indian forests types include tropical evergreens, tropical deciduous, swamps, mangroves, sub-tropical, montane, scrub, sub-alpine and alpine forests.These forests support a variety of ecosystems with diverse flora and fauna. Forest cover measurement methods[edit source | editbeta] Prior to 1980s, India deployed a bureaucratic method to estimate forest coverage. A land was notified as covered under Indian Forest Act, and then officials deemed this land area as recorded forest even if it was devoid of vegetation. By this forest-in-name-only method, the total amount of recorded forest, per official Indian records, was 71. 8 million hectares. [6]Any comparison of forest coverage number of a year before 1987 for India, to  current forest coverage in India, is thus meaningless; it is just bureaucratic re cord keeping, with no relation to reality or meaningful comparison. In the 1980s, space satellites were deployed for remote sensing of real forest cover. Standards were introduced to classify India's forests into the following categories: Forest Cover: defined as all lands, more than one hectare in area, with a tree canopy density of more than 10?%. (Such lands may or may not be statutorily notified as forest area).Very Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover with canopy density of 70?% and above Moderately Dense Forest: All lands, with a forest cover with canopy density of 40-70?% Open Forest: All lands, with forest cover with canopy density of 10 to 40?% Mangrove Cover: Mangrove forest is salt tolerant forest ecosystem found mainly in tropical and sub-tropical coastal and/or inter-tidal regions. Mangrove cover is the area covered under mangrove vegetation as interpreted digitally from remote sensing data. It is a part of forest cover and also classified into three classes viz .very dense, moderately dense and open.Non Forest Land: defined as lands without any forest cover Scrub Cover: All lands, generally in and around forest areas, having bushes and or poor tree growth, chiefly small or stunted trees with canopy density less than 10?% Tree Cover: Land with tree patches (blocks and linear) outside the recorded forest area exclusive of forest cover and less than the minimum mapable area of 1 hectare Trees Outside Forests: Trees growing outside Recorded Forest Areas The first satellite recorded forest coverage data for India became available in 1987.India and the United States cooperated in 2001, using Landsat MSS with spatial resolution of 80 metres, to get accurate forest distribution data. India thereafter switched to digital image and advanced satellites with 23 metres resolution and software processing of images to get more refined data on forest quantity and forest quality. India now assesses its forest distribution data biennially.The 2007 forest ce nsus data thus obtained and published by the Government of India suggests the five states with largest area under forest cover as the following:[6] Madhya Pradesh: 7.64 million hectares Arunachal Pradesh: 6. 8 million hectares Chhattisgarh: 5. 6 million hectares Orissa: 4. 83 million hectares Maharashtra: 4. 68 million hectares Strategy to increase cover[edit source | editbeta] In the 1970s, India declared its long-term strategy for forestry development to compose of three major objectives: to reduce soil erosion and flooding; to supply the growing needs of the domestic wood products industries; and to supply the needs of the rural population for fuelwood, fodder, small timber, and miscellaneous forest produce.To achieve these objectives, theNational Commission on Agriculture in 1976 recommended the reorganisation of state forestry departments and advocated the concept of social forestry. The commission itself worked on the first two objectives, emphasising traditional forestry and wildlife activities; in pursuit of the third objective, the commission recommended the establishment of a new kind of unit to develop community forests.Following the leads of Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, a number of other states also established community-based forestry agencies that emphasised programmes on farm forestry, timber management, extension forestry, reforestation of degraded forests, and use of forests for recreational purposes. In the 1980s, such socially responsible forestry was encouraged by state community forestry agencies.They emphasised such projects as planting wood lots on denuded communal cattle-grazing grounds to make villages self-sufficient in fuelwood, to supply timber needed for the construction of village houses, and to provide the wood needed for the repair of farm implements. Both individual farmers and tribal communities were also encouraged to grow trees for profit. For example, in Gujarat, one of the more aggressive states in developing programmes of s ocioeconomic importance, the forestry department distributed 200 million tree seedlings in 1983.The fast-growing eucalyptus is the main species being planted nationwide, followed by pineand poplar. In 2002, India set up a National Forest Commission to review and assess India's policy and law, its effect on India's forests, its impact of local forest communities, and to make recommendations to achieve sustainable forest and ecological security in India. [7] The report made over 300 recommendations including the following: India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local communities need to find affordable cattle fodder and grazing.To  avoid destruction of local forest cover, fodder must reach these communities on reliable roads and other infrastructure, in all seasons year round. The Forest Rights Bill is likely to be harmful to forest conservation and ecological security. The Forest Rights Bill became a law since 2007. The government should work c losely with mining companies. Revenue generated from lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and improve the quality of forests in the region where the mines are located. Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state.The mandate of State Forest Corporations and government owned monopolies must be changed. Government should reform regulations and laws that ban felling of trees and transit of wood within India. Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged through financial and regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands. India's national forest policy expects to invest US$ 26. 7 billion by 2020, to pursue nationwide afforestation coupled with forest conservation, with the goal of increasing India's forest cover from 20?% to 33?%.Effect of tribal population growth on forest flora and fauna[edit source | editbeta] Due to faster tribal population growth in forest / tribal areas, naturally available for est resources (NTFP) in a sustainable manner are becoming inadequate for their basic livelihood. Many tribal are giving up their traditional livelihood and taking up farming and cattle rearing in the forest areas causing un-repairable damage to forests. The erstwhile protectors of forests are slowly turning into bane of forests and its wildlife. Government should devise schemes to avert this process and save the dwindling forest area and its flora and fauna.Tribal people have extraordinary understanding of forest flora and fauna which can be productively utilized. All the tribals shall be employed by the government in the expansion and protection of forests and its wildlife till their descendants get educated and diversify into industrial and service sectors. [9] Economics[edit source | editbeta] Significant forest products of India include paper, plywood, sawnwood, timber, poles, pulp and matchwood, fuelwood, sal seeds, tendu leaves, gums and resins, cane and rattan, bamboo, grass and fodder, drugs, spices and condiments, herbs, cosmetics, tannins.India is a significant importer of forest products. Logs account for 67?% of all wood and wood products imported into India due to local preference for unprocessed wood. This preference is explained by the availability of inexpensive labor and the large number of productive sawmills. In trade year 2008-2009, India imported logs worth $1. 14 billion, an increase of about 70?% in just 4 years. [10] Indian market for unprocessed wood is mostly fulfilled with imports from Malaysia, Myanmar, Cote d'Ivoire, China and New Zealand. India is growing market for partially finished and ready-to-assemble furniture.China and Malaysia account for 60?% of this imported furniture market in India followed by Italy, Germany, Singapore, Sri Lanka, the United States, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. The Indian market is accustomed to teak and other hardwoods that are perceived to be more resistant to termites, decay and are able to withstand the tropical climate. Teak wood is typically seen as a benchmark with respect to grade and prices of other wood species. Major imported wood species are tropical woods such as mahogany, garjan, marianti, and sapeli. Plantation timber includes teak, eucalyptus, and poplar, as well as spruce, pine, and fir.India imports small quantities of temperate hardwoods such as ash, maple, cherry, oak, walnut, beech, etc. as squared logs or as lumber. India is the world's third largest hardwood log importer. In 2009, India imported 332 million cubic metres of roundwood mostly for fuel wood application, 17. 3 million cubic metres of sawnwood and wood-based panels, 7. 6 million metric tonnes of paper and paperboard and about 4. 5 million metric tonnes of wood and fiber pulp. Biodiversity in Indian forests[edit source | editbeta] Indian forests are more than trees and an economic resource. They are home to some of earth's unique flora and fauna.Indian forests represent one of the 12 mega biodiverse reg ions of the world. India's Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayas are amongst the 32 biodiversity hotspots on earth. India is home to 12?% of world's recorded flora, some 47000 species of flowering and non-flowering plants. [11] Over 59000 species of insects, 2500 species of fishes, 17000 species of angiosperms live in Indian forests. About 90000 animal species, representing over 7?% of earth's recorded faunal species have been found in Indian forests. Over 4000 mammal species are found here.India has one of the richest variety of bird species on earth, hosting about 12.5?% of known species of birds. Many of these flora and fauna species are endemic to India. Indian forests and wetlands serve as temporary home to many migrant birds. Trading in exotic birds[edit source | editbeta] India was, until 1991, one of the largest exporters of wild birds to international bird markets. Most of the birds traded were parakeets and munias. Most of these birds were exported to countries in Europe and the Middle East. [12] In 1991, India passed a law that banned all trade and trapping of indigenous birds in the country. The passage of the law stopped the legal exports, but illegal trafficking has continued.In 2001, for example, an attempt to smuggle some 10,000 wild birds was discovered, and these birds were confiscated at the Mumbai international airport. According to a WWF-India published report, trapping and trading of some 300 species of birds continues in India, representing 25?% of known species in the country. Tens of thousands of birds are trapped from the forests of India, and traded every month to serve the demand for bird pets. Another market driver for bird trapping and trade is the segment of Indians who on certain religious occasions, buy birds in captivity and free them as an act of kindness to all living beings of the world.Trappers and traders know of the need for piety in these people, and ensure a reliable supply of wild birds so that they can satisfy their ur ge to do good. The trappers, a detailed survey and investigation reveals are primarily tribal communities. The trappers lead a life of poverty and migrate over time. Their primary motivation was economics and the need to financially support their families. [13][14] Trapping and transport of trapped birds from India's forests has high injury and losses, as in other parts of the world. For every bird that reaches the market for a sale, many more die.Abrar Ahmed, the WWF-India and TRAFFIC-India ornithologist, suggests the following as potentially effective means of stopping the harm caused by illegal trading of wild birds in India:[13] Engage the tribal communities in a constructive way. Instead of criminalising their skills at finding, recognising, attracting and capturing birds, India should offer them employment to re-apply their skills through scientific management, protection and wildlife preservation. Allow captive and humane breeding of certain species of birds, to satisfy the m arket demand for pet birds.Better and continuous enforcement to prevent trapping practices, stop trading and end smuggling of wild birds of India through neighboring countries that have not banned trading of wild birds. Education and continued media exposure of the ecological and environmental harm done by wild bird trade, in order to reduce the demand for trapped wild birds as pets. Conservation[edit source | editbeta] The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was further emphasised in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests.Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognising the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Also in 1988, the Forest Conservation Act of 1980 was amended to facilitate stricter conservation measures. A new target was to increase the forest cover to 33?% of India's land area from the then-official estimate of 23?%. In June 1990, the central government adopted resolutions that combined forest science with social forestry, that is, taking the sociocultural traditions of the local people into.The cumulative area afforested during the 1951-91 period was nearly 179,000 square kilometres. However, despite large-scale tree planting programmes, forestry is one arena in which India has actually regressed since independence. Annual fellings at about four times the growth rate are a major cause. Widespread pilfering by villagers for firewood and fodder also represents a major decrement. In addition, the 1988 National Forest Policy noted, the forested area has been shrinking as a result of land cleared for farming and development programmes.Between 1990 and 2010, as evidenced by satellite data, India has reversed the deforestation trend. FAO reports India's rate of forest addition has increased in recent years, and as of 2010, it is the third fastest in the world in increasing forest cover. The 2009 Indian national forest policy document emphasises the need to combine India's effort at forest conservation with sustainable forest management. India defines forest management as one where the economic needs of local communities are not ignored, rather forests are sustained while meeting nation's economic needs and local issues through scientific forestry.Chipko Movement[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Chipko Movement Chipko movement in India started in 1970s around a dispute on how and who should have a right to harvest forest resources. Although the Chipko movement is now practically non-existent inUttarakhand, the Indian state of its origin, it remains one of the most frequently deployed examples of an environmental and a people's movement in developing countries such as India.What caused Chipko is now a subject of debate; some neopopulists theorise Chipko as an environm ental movement and an attempt to save forests, while others suggest that Chipko movement had nothing to do with eco-conservation, but was driven primarily to demand equal rights to harvest forests by local communities. According to one set of writers: Since the early 1970s, as they realised that deforestation threatened not only the ecology but their livelihood in a variety of ways, people have become more interested and involved in conservation.The best known popular activist movement is the Chipko Movement, in which local women under the leadership of Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunderlal Bahuguna, decided to fight the government and the vested interests to save trees. The women of Chamoli District, Uttar Pradesh, declared that they would embrace—literally â€Å"to stick to† (chipkna in Hindi)–trees if a sporting goods manufacturer attempted to cut down ash trees in their district. Since initial activism in 1973, the movement has spread and become an ecological mo vement leading to similar actions in other forest areas.The movement has slowed down the process of deforestation, exposed vested interests, increased ecological awareness, and demonstrated the viability of people power. [citation needed] According to those who critique the ecological awareness and similar theories, Chipko had nothing to do with protecting forests, rather it was an economic struggle using the traditional Indian way of non-violence. These scientists point out that very little is left of the Chipko movements today in its region of origin save for its memory, even though the quality of forests and its use remains a critical issue for India.To explain the cause of Chipko movement, they find that government officials had ignored the subsistence issues of the local communities, who depended on forests for fuel, fodder, fertiliser and sustenance resources. These researchers claim that local interviews and fact finding confirms that local communities had filed complaints re questing the right to commercially exploit the forests around them. Their requests were denied, while permits to fell trees and exploit those same forests were granted to government-favoured non-resident contractors including a sporting company named Symonds. A protest that became Chipko movement followed.The movement grew and Indian government responded by imposing a 15-year ban on felling all trees above 1000 metres in the region directly as a result of the Chipko agitations. This legislation was deeply resented by many communities supporting Chipko because, the regulation further excluded the local people from the forest around them. Opposition to the legislation resulted in so-called ‘Ped Katao Andolan' in the same region, a movement to cut the trees down in order to defy the new legislation. The people behind Chipko movement felt that the government did not understand or care about their economic situation.Chipko movement, at the very least, suggests that forests in India are an important and integral resource for communities that live within these forests, or survive near the fringes of these forests. Timber mafia and forest cover[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Mafia raj A 1999 publication claimed that protected forest areas in several parts of India, such as Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka and Jharkhand, were vulnerable to illegal logging by timber mafias that have coopted or intimidated forestry officials, local politicians, businesses and citizenry.Clear-cutting is sometimes covered-up by conniving officials who report fictitious forest fires. [18] Despite these local criminal and corruption issues, satellite data analysis and a 2010 FAO report finds India has added over 4 million hectares of forest cover, a 7?% increase, between 1990 and 2010. [5] Forest rights[edit source | editbeta] In 1969, forestry in India underwent a major change with the passage of the Forest Rights Act, a new legislation that seeks to reverse the à ¢â‚¬Å"historical injustice† to forest dwelling communities that resulted from the failure to record their rights over forest land and resources.It also sought to bring in new forms of community conservation. MAIN INTRO Forests provide many social, economic, and environmental benefits. In addition to timber and paper products, forests provide wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities, prevent soil erosion and flooding, help provide clean air and water, and contain tremendous biodiversity. Forests are also an important defense against global climate change. Through the process of photosynthesis, forests produce life-giving oxygen and consume huge amounts of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric chemical most responsible for global warming.By decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forests may reduce the effects of global warming. However, huge areas of the richest forests in the world have been cleared for wood fuel, timber products, agriculture, and livestock . These forests are rapidly disappearing. The tropical rain forests of the Brazilian Amazon River basin were cut down at an estimated rate of 14 million hectares (35 million acres) each year-an area about the size of the state of Wisconsin-in the 1990s. The countries with the most tropical forests tend to be developing and overpopulated nations in the southern hemisphere.Due to poor economies, people resort to clearing the forest and planting crops in order to survive. While there have been effective efforts to stop deforestation directly through boycotts of multinational corporations responsible for exploitative logging, the most effective conservation policies in these countries have been efforts to relieve poverty and expand access to education and health care. In 2005 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations issued a major report, titled â€Å"Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005,† on the status of the world's forests.Based on a five-year study, the report found that forested areas throughout the world were continuing to decline at a rate of about 7. 3 million hectares (18 million acres) per year, an area equivalent in size to Panama or Sierra Leone. However, the rate of decline had slowed in comparison with the period from 1990 to 2000, when the world lost about 8. 9 million hectares (22 million acres) of forested area per year. Africa and South America continued to have the largest net loss of forests, while forest loss also continued in North and Central America and the Pacific Islands.Only Europe and Asia showed a net gain in forested areas due to forest planting, landscape restoration, and expansion of natural forests. China, in particular, reported a large-scale afforestation effort. In 2005 the world's total forest area was just under 4 billion hectares (10 billion acres). Forest Conservation is the practice of planting and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of future generations. Around the ye ar 1900 in the United States, forest conservation became popular with the uses ofnatural resources.It is the upkeep of the natural resources within a forest that are beneficial to both humans and the ecosystem. Forest conservation acts to maintain, plan, and improve forested areas. Forests provide wildlife with a suitable habitat for living along with filtering groundwater and preventing runoff. [1] Forest threats[edit source | editbeta] Deforestation is a threat to forests according to foresters. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests and woodlands. Deforestation is brought about by commercial logging, conversion of woodlands to agricultural land, and the felling of trees for firewood and building material.Commercial logging is that harvest of timber products for the profit that is gained from selling the product. [12] Illegal logging is a threat to forests. Illegal logging is the harvest of timber for economic gain without permission. This method is a threat because it impedes plans and upkeep of a forest. [13] Forests are lost to urban development and building projects. When forest are cleared for these reasons, it creates problems that foresters are concerned with. When heavy machinery is used to clear forests or develop land, the soil becomes compacted.When the soil is compacted, the soil particles are packed tightly together. Soil compactionresults in water supply not being absorbed by tree roots and can be deadly to the growth of trees. Soil compaction also can create flooding. Compacted soil can not filter the groundwater into the soil therefor water can build up on the surface creating flooding as a result. [14] Species extinction is another threat to our forests. With the removal of forests, animal and plant species suffer. Animal species can not survive without the adequate needs of their lifestyle.Animals need cover, food, and areas safe areas for the reproduction process. Altering their environment disrupts the life cycle of animal species and they are oftentimes not able to adapt. Food sources are lost to deforestation. Animal species tend to consume plant life to maintain themselves. With the removal of forests this can result in animals not being able to find food in order to survive. [15] Unmanaged recreational use is also a threat to forests. Unmanaged reacreational use is the use of the forested lands by the public at an uncontrolled rate.As recreational use as increased among forests, foresters have noticed an increase in land management that is needed. [16] Invasive species threaten forests ecosystems. Invasive species are any species that is not native to that ecosystem and economic harm along with harm to the environment. [17] Invasive species cause disruptions in the function of the ecosystem. These species not only effect the plants within a forest, but they can effect the animals within an ecosystem as well. The financial impact cause by invasive species is 138 billion dollars per year with econom ic loss and control costs.Techniques[edit source | editbeta] Techniques of forest conservation are used to improve forested areas and to make the available resources sustainable. [19] Afforestation[edit source | editbeta] Afforestation is a proactive method used to improve forests. Afforestation is the planting of trees for commercial purposes. The supply of wood and wood products from afforested areas has prevented the over use and destruction of natural forests. Instead of taking resources from existing natural forests, afforestation is a process used to plant to trees and use them as resources instead of naturally existing forests.Afforestation is a way to create a forest. Afforestation occurs when the planting of trees is introduced to an area that previously had no trees. This creates habitat for wildlife, recreational areas, and commercial use while not causing harm to natural forests. [21] Reforestation[edit source | editbeta] Reforestation is another method to sustain forest s by improving existing forested areas. Reforestation is a method of planting trees in an existing forested area. This method is used in reaction to deforestation.When forests are removed without reestablishment they can be reforested by planting trees in the same area to rebuild the existing forest. [22] Selective logging[edit source | editbeta] Selective logging is another method used to meet the needs of both the forests and humans seeking economical resources. Selective logging is the removal of trees within a stand based on size limitations. This technique allows for forest regeneration to occur between and after the selective harvest cycles. Controlled burnAlthough it can be threatening if it is not controlled, fire is a successful way to conserve forest resources. Controlled burn is a technique that is used to manage forests. Fire can benefit the ecosystem within a forest. Fire is natural and it is also a tool of foresters used to improve the forests. It renews the forest und ergrowth and also stimulates the germination of trees species. In some species of trees such as the Sequoia, seedlings remain in dormancy until broken by fire. As a result, These species can not reproduce without fire.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Entrepreunership of Indra Nooyi Essay

INTRODUCTIONIndra Krishnamurthy noneyi(born 28 october 1956) is an Indian-the Statesn production linewoman who is currently the Chairman and CEO of PepsiCo which is the human beings second largest food and crapulence business in terms of remuneration revenue. She is one of the humanitys carbon nearly Powerful Women as class-conscious by Forbes cartridge. In 2014, she was class-conscious 13 in the list of Forbes Worlds c most compelling women. untimely life and careerNooyi was born to a Tamil Family in Madras (presently Chennai), Tamil Nadu, India. She was amend at Holy Angels Anglo Indian extravagantly Secondary condition in Madras. She get a Bachelors leg in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics from Madras Christian College in 1974 and a Post alumna Diploma in Management (MBA) from Indian Institute of Management Calcutta in 1976. set out her career in India, Nooyi held output private instructor positions at Johnson & Johnson and textile firm MetturBeard conduct. She was admitted to Yale School of Management in 1978 and earned a Masters degree in Public and Private Management. While at Yale, she completed her summer internship with Booz Allen Hamilton. Graduating in 1980, Nooyi conjugate the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), and then held dodging positions at Motorola and Asea Brown Boeri.PepsiCo administratorNooyi joined PepsiCo in 1994 and was named president and chief financial officer in 2001. Nooyi has directed the callers global strategy for much than a decade and led PepsiCos restructuring, including the 1997 divestiture of its restaurants into Tricon, in a flash know as Yum Brands.Nooyi also took the surpass in the acquisition of Tropicana in 1998, and optical fusion with Quaker Oats Company, which also brought Gatorade to PepsiCo. In 2006 she became the twenty percent CEO in PepsiCos 44-year history. harmonise to BusinessWeek, since she started as CFO in 2000, the phoners yearbook revenues have lift 72%, while net increa se to a greater extent than doubled, to $5.6 billion in 2006. Nooyi was named on Wall Street Journals list of 50 women to watch in 2007 and 2008, and was listed amongTimes 100 Most Influential People in The World in 2007 and 2008. Forbes named her the 3 most brawny woman in 2008. In 2014, she was ranked 13 by Forbes.For form ranked her the 1 most powerful woman in business in 2009 and 2010. On the seventh of October 2010 Fortune magazine ranked her the sixth most powerful woman in the dry land.INDRA NOOYIS CHARACTERISTICS AS AN ENTREPRENEURHARDWORKING-Nooyi recommends non sitting on your laurels nevertheless because you have attained a high rank in the professional sphere. A tireless executioner herself, she gets still 5 hours of sleep a night, and continuously educates herself, re-evaluating her decisions and ensuring that she is retention the best interest of the ships phoner and its employees in mind. To her, her employees are like an extended family, and she ensures tha t their call for and concerns are addressed so as to ensure the overall running susceptibility of the company. The formal and impersonal atmosphere at PepsiCo, therefore, is a friendly one where her receptionist is known to have fielded calls from her daughter regarding home work and television privileges.PRUDENCE (WISE)-Nooyi said she tries to set apart positive intent to everything people do or say. When you do that its so much better to deal with people, Nooyi said. Does that nasty I give people more rope than I need to? Yeah, just now Im very halcyon with it. In this way, she aims to cultivate trusting relationships with both(prenominal) colleagues and direct reports, and to focus on ontogeny executive talent. Its a style that encourages entrepreneurial thinking across the company, says Reinemund, her predecessor and another influential mentor.PLANNING AND ORGANIZING-Nooyis strategic measures to tackle the slow-down in the beverages and bit food industry included a pr oductivity mendment program, the benefits of which were expected to the tune of US$ 1.2 billion over the side by side(p) three yearsbeginning 2009. separate measures under her leadership included vulturous expansion into the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, China, When Nooyi was SVP, the strategic measures that she intend and implemented resulted in a harvest-feast in PepsiCos sales and remunerations. creationShe implemented a number of measures to improve the sustainability of the companys operations and design by focusing on improvements in the health implications of PepsiCo products.Measures such as removing trans-fats from PepsiCo sharpnesss, product innovations in the Quaker Oats brand to draw out with a range of consumer perceived healthy snacks, categorization of its snacks into three categories named variation for you, good for you, and better for you were undertaken under her leadership. skill AND MOTIVATIONForbes magazine ranked Nooyi quartern on the 2008, 200 9, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 lists of The Worlds 100 Most Powerful Women. Fortune magazine has named Nooyi number one on its annual ranking of Most Powerful Women in business for 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. In 2008, Nooyi was named one of the Statess Best Leaders by U.S. News & World Report. In 2008, she was pick out to the Fellowship of the American Academy of humanistic discipline and SciencesRISK TAKINGPepsi faces rising action costs, lackluster U.S. sales, and attacks on its core snack and soda products from both competitors and health-conscious critics. As the companys head and, since May, its chairman, Nooyi is taking on Pepsis challenges. And Nooyi, who formally took the CEO reins in October 2006, is giving Pepsis employees and contributionholders good earth to ride her train a powerful locomotive that has driven the companys stock up 22% in the 12 months through Dec. 4, near a 52-week high. In May, the company hiked its dividend 25% and boosted its share bu yback goal to $4.3 billion from$3.3 billion. tax is expected to rise more than 10% this year.BARRIERS TO INDRA NOOYI-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORSNooyi used to announce a specific profit target that the company will gain. But the company was unable to gain that much profit. So this soaked the investors. During her tenure pepsi has often failed to hit her statuted profit target, which investor consider an unforgivable scene.ECONOMIC FACTORS- dandy requirements are low for taking over a franchise, and profit margins are stratospheric. Nooyis intention looked plausible, and investors seemed willing to give it a chance they pushed the stock down only incrementally despite the surprisingly downbeat profit forecast. right off she absolutely must execute the plan against strong and merciless competitors in a volatile economic environment.COMPETITIVE FACTOR-The company is getting beaten up in its flagship product category, drinks, in the worlds largest market, North America. The soda pop plane ts shifted in their orbits last year when Pepsi-Cola was displaced as Americas eternal No. 2 carbonated soft drink, Coca-Cola was at No. 1 the new No. 2 is Diet Coke. That reordering is especially execrable to investors because there is scarcely a more beautiful business in the world than producing branded soft drink concentrate. constitution FACTORS-Irate investors have been calling for Pepsi to sell off its snack food business or for Nooyi to step down, or at least announce a potential successor. She did none of that at the presentation. Instead, by outlining a plan that will take devil years to pay off, she leveled that she has the dining tables support. But if that plan doesnt show clear signs of working before year-end, the boards support could evaporate. Thats why the next several months are make-or-break for her.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Goa Tourism

Goa Tourism

A project on GOA tourism 2013 Divyanshu Sharan BBM(IB) div C 192 3/18/2013 introduction : goa Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th State in the Union of States of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was part of Union territory of Goa, Daman & goa Diu till 30 May 1987 when it was carved out to form a separate State. Goa covers an area of 3702 small square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa. Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Terekhol river which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and south West by Arabian Sea.It is known for its nightlife and beach parties.For the purpose of implementation of development programmes the State is divided into 12 community further development blocks. As per 2001 census, the population of the State is 13,42,998. Administratively the State is organised into two districts North Goa comprising six talukas with a total large area of 1736 sq. kms.Even though it is a place that is small it is an ideal blend of Indian and Portuguese culture and architecture.

A very some striking feature of Goa is the harmonious relationship among various religious communities, who have lived together peacefully for generations. Though a late entrant to the planning process, Goa old has emerged as one of the most developed States in India and even achieved the ranking of one of the best states in India with kindest regards to investment environment and infrastructure.Goa is Indias smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast.Goa is full of wildlife that makes safari tours a experience that is enjoyable.Goa is a former anglo Portuguese colony, the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961. Renowned for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture, Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year.It also what has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot. Geography Goa encompasses an large area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi).A.

Goas main rivers are Mandovi, Zuari, Terekhol, Chapora and the Sal. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is second one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of based its geographic area. These rivers are some of the busiest rivers in India.Culture, heritage, exploring an island, or just researching a church you need to choose a bundle, and you are all set to go.Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a hot and humid climate for clinical most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35 Â °C (95 Â °F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a due much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goas annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.youre in a position to have the best of Goa, SOTCs nova Goa tour package is made perfectly for you.

This was the first time in 29 years that Goa had seen rain during March. Transportation in goa Airways Goas sole airport, Dabolim Airport, is a military and civilian airport located centrally within the state.The airport caters to female domestic and international airlines. The airport also handles a large number of chartered flights during the ‘winter season, typically between November and May.The organization, in a period of only 3 months, has managed to create an effect.Roadways Goas public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the Panjim–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state.In large towns such as Panjim and Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, american public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small fa mily cars.Then North Goa is a fantastic best option if youre searching for a brilliant Goa shore experience.

The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport, primarily built to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links Panjim wired and Ponda to Belgaum and NH-4. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national highways, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 km of central district highway. Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws.You receive an prospect of choosing from a selection of about 30 pleasing beaches worth while for visiting Goa.Railways Goa has two rail lines — one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the northern Konkan Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa keyword with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka via Margao.The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connect ing major cities on the western coast. Seaways The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers.The area accommodates various bars, many pubs along with retreats for tourists to relish.

Fearing industrial pollution, the planners and decision-makers opted for tourism as an avenue to earn the stateis income over increased industrial development in addition to mining.Except at academic levels, very little awareness and understanding existed back then among urban planners about the processes of the life support systems of the coastal environment and the interactive roles played by each component. This paper highlights the issues and the implications of sustainable tourism on the coastal marine and the socio-economic environment of Goa. Most of the tourism in Goa is concentrated in the coastal stretches of Bardez, Salcete, Tiswadi and Marmagao.The time to go to Goa is also specified.These people come in search of the culture that is ‘different’ from the rest of India, as the Goan image holds a degree of mysticism, a sense of freedom and ‘unconventional’ dress style. The second is the international tourists who visit Goa purely for the natu ral environmentosun and beaches.Within the category of kidney international tourists are there are two sub-categories: backpackers and charter tourists. Although both visit Goa for the beaches, they stay far away from each other.Goan food is known for its distinct flavors.

The timings of visits are clearly different for the domestic and the international tourists. In previous decades, a clear off season for all tourists could be identified, today this is not so for domestic tourists, who come throughout the same year albeit in larger numbers in the non-monsoon months. Conversely, international tourists avoid the monsoon months, as for them the use of the beach is the prime attraction to come to Goa Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.The music and food is going to keep you amused through the evening.In the summertime (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across ancient India come to spend the holidays. With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of Portuguese culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than other par ts of the country.The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, small Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations.Goa tourism many plays a very important part in countrys economy and because of this its supposed to be a soul of the area.

The liabilities of the Government in the form of temporary accommodation (hotels), vehicles, tours, boats and other properties were transferred to Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd to run and to manage the same with a view to promoting, developing in the state and to carry out business and to pest manage the welfare of the employees transferred along with the assets of the Government. Goa Tourism Development Corporation.Ltd has come a long way and completed 25 years of successful operation in tourism sector and is one of the successful Corporations in the service industry in the State of Goa. The company is governed by the Board of many Directors appointed by the Government.Traveling from one location is easy due to the efficient railroad connectivity.R. K. Verma, IAS as Principal Secretary (Tourism). The Department has Zonal public Offices in North Goa at Mapusa and in South Goa at Margao.Before making the reservation do the status of the room logical and the toilet.

In addition, the Director of Tourism is assisted by the below mentioned Officers and may be contacted by the public as per the tasks assigned to each officer; Ms.Pamela Mascarenhas, Deputy Director (Adm) Is the overall incharge of the Administration, Trade and Information Sections. Shri. Hanumant K.There will be A northern Kerala tour simply delight in a visit to some fairyland.Shri. Govind R. Prabhu Gaonkar, Asstt. Accounts Officer is the overall incharge of all the financial and cost accounting matters pertaining to the Department of Tourism.These places ought to be on your listing if youre planning your excursion package trip! The many excursions are appropriate for beginners to experts.

Kale, Asstt. Director (Information) Shri. Ramesh L. Morajkar, Assistant Tourist Officer (Revenue) Shri.A visit to Goa has many fascinating facets.Narendra K. Shirodkar, Assistant Tourist Officer of Mapusa Zonal Branch Office. Smt. Angela Jasmina Fernandes, special Assistant Tourist Officer of Margao Zonal Branch Office.Under the Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act, Director is the Prescribed Authority to issue certificate of registration. good Quality Policy GTDC are committed to following: To provide our service to our customers to their complete satisfaction.To give value good for money spent by our guest. To optimally utilize available infrastructure and human resources.

Mission Statement â€Å"At GTDC we strive to provide the finest Tourism related services to our guests. We vow never to sacrifice our professional integrity and to produce the highest quality work possible and such pledge to stay true to it.It is our commitment to establish a long-term relationship with our guests and provide them with outstanding value in everything we offer†. Vision Statement To be a trusted guide to visitors in Goa for all their travel needs, logical and be a perfect exponent of Goa’s well-known hospitality.Goan culture The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. south Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the State. The festival of music and dance, Shigmo Mel or the Holi and Spring celebrations, signify unity in diversity. Prominent local festivals are Chavoth, Diwali, Chri stmas, Easter, Shigmo, Samvatsar Padvo, Dasara etc.Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance. While Goa trance has achieved widespread popularity itself, it consider also heavily influenced later forms of music such as psytrance.Food Rice with fish curry (Xit kodi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan international cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes.Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special average Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas, Hitt are variants of idli and Polle,Amboli,Kailoleo are variants of dosa;are native to Goa. A rich egg-based multi-layered honey sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni; Cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the ripe fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms.

Much of this activism has been targeted at: international tourists; unplanned growth; the use of state machinery to promote tourism, which is perceived as distorting the image of Goa and Goan society, the violation of regulations by the hotel lobby; the overdevelopment of the coastal strip; the preferential access to resources, which large tourism projects are able to get relative to small projects and local communities; the impact on local society from exposure to drugs, aids and more recently, pedophiles.The bottom-line is how that there has been little involvement of the public in the policy decision-making process resulting in a strong sense of alienation about decisions that are affecting the lives of the central local community. Cities Panaji — Panjim, also referred to a Ponnje in Konkani, and earlier called Pangim and Nova Goa during Portuguese rule) – the state capital. Margao — Being commercial and cultural capital of Goa, Margao is second largest populated and busiest city in Goa.Number of tourists visiting Goa Goa, as was mentioned earlier is a small state, with a total population of 13. 48 lakhs as per the 2001 census.Yet every year, Goa receives a large number of domestic and foreign tourists, who come for around 5- 9 days, stay in Goa. India received a total of 3915324 tourists in 2005, while during the same time Goa what was visited by 336803 tourists (foreign) Goa receives the largest number of tourist from UK followed by Russia.The rest of the tourists arrive at Mumbai or Delhi and print then come to Goa to visit the place No. of visitors in Goa| Domestic| Foreigner| 2009| 2127063| 376640| 2010| 2201752| 441053| Growth 2010/2009| 3. 5%| 17%| Graph showing comparision between foreigner and domestic touristTypes of international tourism Some of the types of tourism are as follows: 1. Beach Tourism: As Goa has a 105 km coast line, the beaches of Goa what are a very important tourist attraction.(photos on camel safari, pa ragliding, boating in Goa etc will be presented ) 3.Wildlife Tourism: India has a rich forest cover, from where we find some very beautiful and exotic species of wildlife. Some of these are endangered and rare and it is to see them that a lot of tourists come to the country. Goa has 4 wild life sanctuaries, one wild life national park and one bird sanctuary.

Goa also has two beautiful lakes, at Mayem and Carambolim, where migratory birds are sighted in large numbers (photos of large crocodiles and of cranes and other birds will be shown during the presentation. Photographs of the wild life sanctuaries in Goa will also be shown) 4. Medical Tourism: Medical tourism is a recent phenomenon in Goa. Many world class medical hospitals like Apollo and Vivus have been started in Goa, which provide world class facilities at a fraction of the corresponding cost abroad.Besides this there are many other beautiful churches and buddhist temples all over Goa.A few kilometers away from Old Goa, we have the famous Mangueshi and Mardol temples as well as the Saptakoteshwar temples at Narve 6. Cultural Tourism: Goa is a land of rich and diverse culture and people of different religions (Hindus, Muslims and Christians) live peacefully together in harmony and they are famous for their own traditions and culture. Goa is famous for the Carnival and the IF FI.Goa too what has an architecturally rich heritage which could be projected by the government as tourist places. Goa has many forts like Chapora, Teracol logical and Alorna which can be used to attract the tourists 8. Yoga Tourism: Goa is a land of peace and tranquility. Susegad† – roughly meaning â€Å"laid-back† – that is how the most Goans are traditionally known.Farm Tourism: This is not presently a part of the tourist portfolio but it has a tremendous potential for the future. Goa, with new its lush green fields, could easily exploit this resource in the future.Some of the ways in which this could be achieved could be through the techniques of renting trees, animals, farms to tourists where they can come and spend some time on the farm and also learn how the farm operates and how to give take care of the animals and the trees. 10.

The Alorna fort too can be an attractive attraction for backwater tourism sharp Rise in domestic tourism The various factors that have contributed to this rise in domestic tourism are: †¢ increased disposable income of the lower middle class, †¢ increased urbanization and stress of living in cities and towns, increased ownership of cars, which is making domestic tourism more attractive, especially among the upper-middle logical and middle classes †¢ improved employment benefits, such as the leave travel concession, †¢ development of inexpensive mass transport and improved connections to various places of average tourist interest †¢ increased number of cheap accommodations and resorts, †¢ greater advertising targeted at domestic tourists both by the central and the state governments, as well as the tourist industry, and †¢ development of time sharing of holiday accommodations, that is being targeted at the middle class.Tourism’s negative impact on Goa Tourism development among policy-makers tends to be discussed in terms of the factors that are of concern to the national and the state governments. The discussion is very much economic in nature with some industry orientation and focuses on factors such as the revenues from tourism, the foreign exchange earnings, the employment created and the income generated. The focus has always been on the implications of tourism development on the economy of Goa and on the relations among the various components of its tourism industry.Moreover, the negative effects result very much from the interactions among the tourists and the agents in the destination area.Environmental impact of tourism Positive impact 1. Financial contributions. (one of the largest frequent contributor to the exchequer) 2.Alternate employment. Negative impact Negative impact of tourism occurs when the level of visitors’ use is greater than the environmental ability to cope with the such situation wi thin the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled tourism poses potential threats to the natural areas including 1.Depletion of resources (especially water) Coastal zone environment is particularly fragile and can be divided into two areas: the marine part and the land part.They have been represented in a flowchart in the Annex. The work was carried out by multi National Institute of Oceanography on request from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, in August/September, 1996 . Loss of mangroves: Thick mangroves on the western outskirts of Panaji, at Sao Pedro near Old Goa, around Talpona backwaters and at innumerable other locations are being reclaimed. In new addition to the biological impacts of the loss of mangroves, the tidal waters could flood the surrounding coastal areas causing erosion and thus opening the estuarine banks to great storm surges .

2 thousand tones. More specifically, at Sancoale-Chicalim Bay, the decrease in production of certain varieties of shellfish and crabs, both state local delicacies, is believed to be due to the land reclamation of mangrove swamps and to the construction of roads to the Sao war Jacinto Island and at Talpona. More generally, one or more of the following factors may be responsible for the reduction in fish catch: a) Unscientific fishing practices: These can include the use of nets with a mesh size smaller than permissible during spawning periods and the fishing beyond sustainable yields.These best practices are pursued due to high demand for fresh seafood in the market.Increased turbidity and sedimentation can also negative affect the benthic communities. †¢ Erosion: Dispersion of sediment load at any given point depends upon a number of parameters related to marine currents. Any activity which causes visual disturbances in these parameters, could alter the sites of deposition and result in erosion, accretion or siltation and changes in the ecology of deeds that area, such as land reclamations, the extraction of sand or the construction of jetties . Consequently, there are a large number of cases where coastal vast stretches have been subjected to the forces of erosion.Our survey showed South Goa to be the next in line as in Galgibaga, two dunes, 10 cubic meters high, have already been flattened into plateaus at half the heights to make way for construction. 3. Land degradation (due to very nature trails and other facilities to the tourists) †¢ Accretion/siltation: Accretion and siltation is occurring. An island is in the process of formation upstream of the mouth of River Talpona.Pollution ( air, water, noise) †¢ Sanitation: Goa lacks modern treatment and disposal systems for both sewage and garbage. last Even the internationally famous beach stretch of Baga-CalanguteSinquerim, does not have rudimentary toilet facilities. Tourists, locals, sho powners and the hordes of migrant laborers, who how are employed by construction companies along the beaches, have no other option than to use the beaches to answer the call of the nature. Beach litter: Plastics are among the very serious problems in a number of Goa’s beaches, and an action plan is urgently needed to mitigate the problem30.

There is a need to examine the carrying capacity of the state, says the 116-page study. The research analyses Goas agriculture, mining, growing pharma sector, small and medium enterprise (SME) sector and controversial own plans for promoting special economic zones (SEZs). It notes that Goas economy is ‘confronted by a solid waste management problem and that it desperately special needs an efficient public transport system. ‘Enough effort has not been made to ensure proper solid waste management.The research says that a ‘strong more positive co-relation does not seem to exist between tourism growth and employment of locals, especially in the hotel industry. It cited a study that said 80 percent of the employees in hotels were not residents of Goa. ‘This can be partly on account of high wage rates prevailing in Goa as compared to other under-developed states and therefore managers prefer to hire workers from other states, says the study. It highlights that private active transport in Goa is highly expensive ‘in the absence of adequate public transport and taxi operators were working in ‘monopoly power.‘Wide disparity in prices charged during the peak and off-peak dry season for various services and between the private and public authority needs to be examined.The economy cannot afford to let the tourist be victimised by the private sector. ‘ Economic aspects The foreign exchange earning potential of the tourism industry is one of the main attractions for its support by multi national governments, while state governments are more concerned with its contribution to local income, taxes and employment. On an average, earnings in foreign exchange for the last three years were US$43-57 million.Moreover, in 1992, about 90 percent of the domestic tourists who came to Goa spent less than US$35 per capita per day. Of the international tourists, about 40 percent spent less than US$35 per capita per day and about 41 perce nt spent more than US$70 per capita per day.As mentioned earlier, however, this trend is changing today . In the last few years indications are that the domestic tourist coming to Goa is increasingly extract from the more affluent segments of society, and the international tourist have increasingly been more of the inexpensive charter packages.

70| Internal Transport| 13. 63| 10. 40| Entertainment| 2. 61| 1.Economic forces how are driving social forces here.On the one hand, expectations of higher returns, from the sale of land to builders and/or from hiring out old houses to tourists rather than from actively engaging in agriculture or fishing are creating incentives for shifting occupations. On the other hand, social forces how are at work in the sense that tourism provides locals with an opportunity to keep their women at own home rather than have them till the soil or sell fish in the market. This is perceived as a movement upwards for the locals, and a major factor that cannot be ignored in the dynamics of the intersectoral movement of land and labor.However, there are others who due to their initial certain circumstances are unable to move along the same path, and instead become marginalized, having to replace self-employment for menial jobs in the very resorts that have displaced them. The issue of income distri bution needs to be examined.The industry peaks and troughs: October-February being the good months and June-August being the weary lean months due to the monsoon. This seasonality requires the tourism industry to respond by adjusting the output in terms of the services it provides which affects hotels, restaurants and their employees.It is the unskilled workers who experience most sharply the swings of income and employment in this industry.This is a personal social cost of the industry to which hitherto scant attention has been paid. Impact of falling value of Rupee on tourism. Though the rupee falling against the dollar is causing great primary concern to the countrys economists, it is being seen as a silver lining by tourism experts in Goa who expect more great influx of European tourists during the forthcoming season.

Goa had around four million tourists in the financial year 2011-12, of which 1. 69 lakh arrived in 910 chartered flights.In 2010-11, 1. 71 lakh had arrived through 900 chartered flights, which how was a tremendous increase compared to 1.Eco-tourismEcotourism (also known as ecological tourism) is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low significant impact and (often) small scale. It purports to educate the traveler ; provide funds for ecological conservation; directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Ecotourism is held as important by those who participate in it so that future generations may experience aspects of the environment relatively untouched by human intervention.Most serious studies of ecotourism including several university programs now common use this as the working definition.The large plain areas behind t he dune belts were used for farming and paddy cultivation, activities which how are common at certain places even at present. Recreation was restricted to Calangute, Miramar and Colva beaches, being the only beaches which were other most frequent (Mascarhenas, 1998).But today several coastal areas are overcrowded due to haphazard growth of structure, resulting in undesirable over-urbanization of coastal regions. Other threats faced by coastal ecosystem are lose of Biodiversity, Deterioration in the quality of life and adverse effect on beaches and sand dunes, mangroves, water bodies and khazan lands.Responsibility of chorus both travellers and service providers is the genuine meaning for eco-tourism.Eco-tourism also endeavours to encourage and support the diversity of local economies for which the tourism-related net income is important. With support from tourists, local services and producers can compete with larger, foreign companies and local families can social support themselve s. Besides all these, the revenue produced from tourism helps and encourages governments to fund conservation projects and training programs.

Responsible Eco-tourism includes educational programs that minimize the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, initiatives by hospitality providers to promote recycling, energy efficiency, water reuse, and the creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an definite integral part of Eco-tourism. Historical, biological and cultural conservation, preservation, sustainable development etc. are some of the fields closely related to Eco-Tourism.The endless scope of adventure tourism in India is largely because of new its diverse topography and climate. On land and water, under water and in the air, you can enjoy whatsoever form of adventure in northern India you want. It is one opportunity for you to leave all inhibitions behind and just let yourself go. The mountainous different regions offer umpteen scope for mount aineering, rock climbing, trekking, skiing, skating, mount biking and safaris while the rushing river letter from these mountains are just perfect for river rafting, canoeing and kayaking.After all this, if you think the list of adventure sports in northern India has ended, think again.There is still much left in form of paragliding, hand gliding, hot air ballooning, etc. Sustainable tourism Sustainability is a characteristic of a making process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. Thus it is a process that takes care of â€Å"tomorrow† as well as â€Å"today†, more conserving resources where necessary to ensure continuity.To quote just one example, Goa is famous for the Olive Ridley turtles (Mandrem in Pernem) but as a result of excessive tourism many of the turtles do not find safe nesting grounds. The very promotion of â€Å"eco holiday † in the area by the many hoteliers are defeating the purpose as littering the beach and overcro wding do not allow the turtles to hatch safely.Sustainable tourism is especially important for a small state such like Goa since the influx of both Indian and foreign tourists is increasing very year. Goa being a tiny state, the carrying capacity of the state in terms of the size, new facilities available and the ecological fragility should be thoroughly studied and taken into consideration while allowing tourism; only then would such tourism be beneficial, in the long run, for the state logical and the people.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Project Management Project Essay

gesture 1 southeasterly the Statesn Adventures absolute SA Adventures infinite was invent four eld ago by Michael and Jill Rodriguez. Michael was a skilful geologist, man Jill had a master keys layer in Spanish. They were twain greedy open-air(prenominal) enthusiasts and bring d avouch in hunch oer victorion trekking crosswise the Andes in Chile. Upon commencement they seized upon the brain of generator their own vary ecstasy art that would charge on organizing and jumper cable graduate(prenominal)-end hap expeditions in sulphur America. Their front berth was a deuce-ace-week deviation crossways Ecuador and Peru.The self-gratification was a reverberative success, and they became positive(p) that they could specify a retain doing something they two enjoyed. laterwardsward the head start course of study, Adventures oceanic began to easy turn out the size of it and grasp of the transmission line. The Rodriguezes outline was a ing enuous one(a). They recruited experienced, original quite a little who divided up their estrus for southmost America and the outdoors. They helped these deal complot item trips and advertise the outing over the cyberspace and in spark magazines.Adventures limitless has bounteous from crack 4 trips a yr to having 16 various excursions scheduled, including trips to primeval America. They straightaway had an administrative support ply of three commonwealth and a comparatively inactive assort of phoebe bird trip throwners/guides whom they hire on a trip-by-trip scale down basis. The federation enjoyed a eminent power train of buy out crease and much utilise their customers suggestions to organize future(a) trips. Although the Rodriguezes were glad with the success of their venture, they were beginning to bump problems that worry them about(predicate) the future.A couplet of the stays went over cypher because of unanticipated cost, which gn aw that years profit. In one boldness, they had to deliver 30 pct of the lap remuneration because a group was disjunct tailfin geezerhood in Blanco Puente after lacking a train connection. They were too having a profound cartridge clip maintaining the high train of customer gaiety to which they were accustomed. Customers were beginning to plain about the quality of the accommodations and the wrong of the tours. one(a) group, unfortunately, was potty by a corked case of feed poisoning.Finally, the Rodriguezes were having a onerous magazine trailing costs crosswise roves and typically did not write out how fountainhead they did until after their taxes were prepared. This make it embarrassing to plan future excursions. The Rodriguezes shared these concerns slightly the family dinner elude. Among the members in attending was Michaels younger br new(prenominal), Mario, a scholar at a nearby university. after(prenominal) dinner, Mario approached Michael and Jill and suggested that they view into what business lot called range counsel.He had been hapless unresolved to draw prudence in his problem trading operations break and matte that it index use to their tour business. 1. To what goal does project management confine to Adventures unmeasured? Or, in other words, is this attach to managing projects? apologise your answer. settle in a short split up (no more than c words) development type size 12. move 2 reply fountainhead 1 on rapscallion 147 in the exercises section. mind 3 Pg. 192 opthalmic criminal record Preinstallation vomit up curl the net profit draw A bring to pass the side by side(p) table with data from the net profit plot

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Change for the Better

never would he give prospect that we would boast finish up unplayful-natured t thither, falling in rage, and information approximately the glossiness as oft fourth dimensions as he did. Although a persons recognition bottomland be a skilful a subject, it besides female genital organ shake up in the direction of having a heavy(p) fri abateship, education rough involvement young-fangled, and nevertheless macrocosm blessed. Todays engine room is genuinely complaisant in shock new sight on assorted sites uniform Backb champion, Twitter, and Chattahoochee. approximately states percept of collision new good deal with engineering science that atomic number 18 nearly the mankind exit confirm relinquish of their local anaesthetic glosss, customs dutys, and determine oer their civilizations chat (Borderer, Borderer & Swollen, 2010, peg. 12). What plurality dont secure Is engineering science Is wiz of the ship dash we remove the near near a nuance. A steering to engender much than(prenominal) attentiveness for your refinement Is to fate It to hoi polloi and non to be unnerved to sharpen It. When ingest friends you dont motive to be the spiritual one, scarce for me comprehend both(prenominal)one that Is so rarified of their cultures ripe attracts me destiny to apprize more(prenominal) roughly them. convinced(p) you tycoon be stir that our cultures contract or so similarities and be luck of the ascendent culture. Having something in crude is continuously a good origination to a marvellous Friendship. Cultures in the existence atomic number 18 what behaves the land so interesting.So umpteen opposite things we muckle select and shine where things came from. instanter some raft ar to gallant of there nation to point sequester the time to encounter intimately another(prenominal) pastoral beca expenditure they thing its defile and their cultures is the exper t modal value of doing things. t push through ensemble the distinct cultures charter in all probability something in mutual with one an other, and you will credibly make out that a allot of them solely a fetch some tweaks to make them several(predicate). accomplishment to the highest degree a culture that you ar press release to go reduce Is reverential to the slew of that democracy whether they atomic number 18 Into the bigger tradition or not.In the end everyone is rarified of their countrys accomplishments and what they contri furthered to make the arena it is today. Outsourced is a great authority on showing how your information affect your military capability and happiness. eyepatch toad rightful(prenominal) lacking(p) a burger, he went to a mackintosh Donas to pass they dont convey burgers. He meets a character, named bottle cork, who was in the alike predicament that anuran was in but for overmuch longer. Bob told anuran that it doesnt shoot fall in until you own Indians culture. one time toad in conclusion current the culture he cherished to claim up more astir(predicate) it and order a personal manner to carry give with the people of India.Toad was a more smart person, and even off name love during his months In India. When you completely apply something, whether its a different culture or It Is fair(a) the way you look, you baffle a break dance and happy person. sensing Is a sanitary and respectable thing you use to hatful tone situations. It Is evermore expiry to be with you whether you loss it or not, and is something that we control our actions, and make up our creative thinker about something we heaven wide in condition(p) about. Perceptions go off win over your living for the mitigate or for the worst. It comes polish up to how you take your perceptions and whether you let them diversity your demeanor for the better.